Maxillofacial surgeryis the application for the treatment of fractures (fractures) of bones in the facial region.
What is Maxillofacial Surgery?
Maxillofacial surgery includes not only the fractures of the bones in the facial region, but also the surgical removal and appropriate reconstruction of any cysts and tumors that may arise in these bones. In addition, temporomandibular joint (the joint of the lower jaw with the temporal bone) disorders are also included in the field of maxillofacial surgery.
What is the Purpose of Maxillofacial Treatment?
We can talk about three main purposes in these treatments:
- To provide the most ideal occlusion (normal contact of the lower and upper teeth)
- To treat disorders that adversely affect the functions of the jaw joint
- To eliminate the aesthetic problems that negatively affect the facial contour and symmetry and to obtain a more proportional facial appearance.
In maxillofacial injuries, the underlying bone structures as well as the soft tissue may be affected. At this point, it may be necessary to repair both skin tissue and bone structures in order to effectively repair the area. Therefore, the injury must be handled holistically; Accordingly, a surgical plan should be made.
Which Treatments Can Be Done With Maxillofacial Surgery?
- Repairing the deformation caused by traffic accidents, crashes or falls
- Treatment of cleft lip and palate in infants and children
- Treatment of defects in the skull and face area
- Resection of head and neck cancers
- Transfer and repair of tissues taken from different parts of the body
- Diagnosing and treating facial pain
- Treatment of diseases affecting the jaw joint
- Correction of incorrectly enlarged jaw structure to support healthy closure
- Lengthening of the jaw with distraction osteogenesis
- Implant replacements
- Aesthetic applications that make the chin proportional to the face
- Removal of head, neck and skin tumors
By Who Is Maxillofacial Surgery Performed?
In the past, these procedures, also known as “oral surgery”, were generally accepted in the field of dentistry. However, nowadays it is applied in plastic and aesthetic surgery as well as dentistry. Therefore, according to the needs of the patient and the type of pathology in the region, treatment with maxillofacial surgery is possible in both areas.
What Should Be Considered in Maxillofacial Injuries?
- Non-occlusion of the airway: Especially lower jaw fractures carry a great risk at this point. Fractures that cause posterior changes can cause obstruction of the airways due to bone fragments and soft tissue movement. This can cause extensive hematoma and, over time, airway obstruction.
- Tracheostomy Indication: Acute hematomas resulting from larynx trauma may obstruct the airway due to edema. Therefore, sudden respiratory failure may occur. Therefore, respiratory monitoring in patients with maxillofacial injury is very important during the first intervention.
- Stopping Bleeding: One of the things that should be considered in such injuries is a quick and careful examination. Therefore, active bleeding should be controlled with the right methods. Pressure can be applied to the area with the help of fingers until the bleeding is stopped. However, finger compression may not be sufficient in hemorrhages affecting the neck. At this point, the bleeding can be controlled by means of bandages and gauze pads.